[fɐˈlamuʃ] (but in Brazil both merge, falamos [faˈlɐmus]). [3], Brazilian Portuguese disallows some closed syllables:[1] coda nasals are deleted with concomitant nasalization of the preceding vowel, even in learned words; coda /l/ becomes [w], except for conservative velarization at the extreme south and rhotacism in remote rural areas in the center of the country; the coda rhotic is usually deleted entirely when word-final, especially in verbs in the infinitive form; and /i/ can be epenthesized after almost all other coda-final consonants. There are also some words with two vowels occurring next to each other like in iate and sábio may be pronounced both as rising diphthongs or hiatus. The /e-ɛ/ and /o-ɔ/ distinction does not happen in nasal vowels; ⟨em om⟩ are pronounced as close-mid. In BP, the vowel /a/ (which the letter ⟨a⟩ otherwise represents) is sometimes phonemically raised to /ɐ/ when it is nasal, and also in stressed syllables before heterosyllabic nasal consonants (even if the speaker does not nasalize vowels in this position):[55] compare for instance dama sã [ˈdɐmɐ ˈsɐ̃] (PT) or [ˈdɐ̃mɐ ˈsɐ̃] (BR) ('healthy lady') and dá maçã [ˈda mɐˈsɐ̃] (PT) or [ˈda maˈsɐ̃] (BR) ('it gives apples'). European Portuguese has also two central vowels, one of which tends to be elided like the e caduc of French. Close-mid vowels and open-mid vowels (/e ~ ɛ/ and /o ~ ɔ/) contrast only when they are stressed. This affects especially the sibilant consonants /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, and the unstressed final vowels /ɐ/, /i, ɨ/, /u/. The other trill [ʀ] is found in areas of German-speaking, French-speaking, and Portuguese-descended influence throughout coastal Brazil down Espírito Santo, most prominently Rio de Janeiro. Syllables have the maximal structure of (C)(C)V(C). All vowels are raised and advanced before alveolar, palato-alveolar and palatal consonants. Vowel nasalization in some dialects of Brazilian Portuguese is very different from that of French, for example. [ɐ̠j] or even [ʌj]. Until 2009, this reality could not be apprehended from the spelling: while Brazilians did not write consonants that were no longer pronounced, the spelling of the other countries retained them in many words as silent letters, usually when there was still a vestige of their presence in the pronunciation of the preceding vowel. Portuguese has one of the richest vowel phonologies of all Romance languages, having both oral and nasal vowels, diphthongs, and triphthongs. The dialects of Portugal are characterized by reducing vowels to a greater extent than others. The rhotic is "hard" (i.e., /ʁ/) in the following circumstances: It is "soft" (i.e., /ɾ/) when it occurs in syllable onset clusters (e.g., atributo),[29] and written as a single 'r' between vowels (e.g., dirigir 'to drive'). [31] Evidence of this allophone is often encountered in writing that attempts to approximate the speech of communities with this pronunciation, e.g., the rhymes in the popular poetry (cordel literature) of the Northeast and phonetic spellings (e.g., amá, sofrê in place of amar, sofrer) in Jorge Amado's novels (set in the Northeast) and Gianfrancesco Guarnieri's play Eles não usam black tie (about favela dwellers in Rio de Janeiro). Convert to: International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) transcrição → /tɾɐ̃ʃkɾisˈɐ̃w̃/ Display: for online use: transcription above each word transcription under each word (works only in Mozilla Firefox) for copy-pasting the results: transcription under each line of text z. At the end of words, the default pronunciation for a sibilant is voiceless, /ʃ, s/, but in connected speech the sibilant is treated as though it were within a word (assimilation): When two identical sibilants appear in sequence within a word, they reduce to a single consonant. This restricted variation has prompted several authors to postulate a single rhotic phoneme. in soma [ˈsõmɐ] ('sum'). Diphthongs are not considered independent phonemes in Portuguese, but knowing them can help with spelling and pronunciation.[49]. Semivowels contrast with unstressed high vowels in verbal conjugation, as in, In some of Brazil and Angola, the consonant hereafter denoted as, In northern and central Portugal, the voiced stops. In any event, the general paradigm is a useful guide for pronunciation and spelling. This article focuses on the pronunciations that are generally regarded as standard. vs. sé [ˈsɛ] ('see/cathedral') vs. se [sɨ] ('if'), and pêlo [ˈpelu] ('hair') vs. pélo [ˈpɛlu] ('I peel off') vs. pelo [pɨlu] ('for the'),[48] after orthographic changes, all these three words are now spelled pelo. But if the two sibilants are different they may be pronounced separately, depending on the dialect. [j] and [w] are non-syllabic counterparts of the vowels /i/ and /u/, respectively. In the examples below, the stressed syllable of each word is in boldface. One of the most salient differences between European and Brazilian Portuguese is their prosody. In the Lisbon accent, the diphthong [ɐj] often has an onset that is more back than central, i.e. The stressed relatively open vowels /a, ɛ, ɔ/ contrast with the stressed relatively close vowels /ɐ, e, o/ in several kinds of grammatically meaningful alternation: There are also pairs of unrelated words that differ in the height of these vowels, such as besta /e/ ('beast') and besta /ɛ/ ('crossbow'); mexo /e/ ('I move') and mecho /ɛ/ ('I highlight [hair]'); molho /o/ ('sauce') and molho /ɔ/ ('bunch'); corte /ɔ/ ('cut') and corte /o/ ('court'); meta /e/ ('I put' subjunctive) and meta /ɛ/ ('goal'); and (especially in Portugal) para /ɐ/ ('for') and para /a/ ('he stops'); forma /o/ ('mold') and forma /ɔ/ ('shape'). Falling diphthongs are composed of a vowel followed by one of the high vowels /i/ or /u/; although rising diphthongs occur in the language as well, they can be interpreted as hiatuses. The accents of rural, southern Rio Grande do Sul and the Northeast (especially Bahia) are considered to sound more syllable-timed than the others, while the southeastern dialects such as the mineiro, in central Minas Gerais, the paulistano, of the northern coast and eastern regions of São Paulo, and the fluminense, along Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and eastern Minas Gerais as well the Federal District, are most frequently essentially stress-timed. However, in North-Eastern Brazilian dialects (like in the states of Bahia and Pernambuco), non-final unstressed vowels are open-mid /a/, /ɛ/, /ɔ/. It occurs in unstressed syllables such as in pegar [pɯ̽ˈɣaɾ] ('to grip'). [54] Vowel nasalization has also been observed non-phonemically as result of coarticulation, before heterosyllabic nasal consonants, e.g. If the next word begins with a dissimilar vowel, then /i/ and /u/ become approximants in Brazilian Portuguese (synaeresis): In careful speech and in with certain function words, or in some phrase stress conditions (see Mateus and d'Andrade, for details), European Portuguese has a similar process: But in other prosodic conditions, and in relaxed pronunciation, EP simply drops final unstressed /ɨ/ and /u/ (elision): Aside from historical set contractions formed by prepositions plus determiners or pronouns, like à/dà, ao/do, nesse, dele, etc., on one hand and combined clitic pronouns such as mo/ma/mos/mas (it/him/her/them to/for me), and so on, on the other, Portuguese spelling does not reflect vowel sandhi. There is a partial correlation between the position of the stress and the final vowel; for example, the final syllable is usually stressed when it contains a nasal phoneme, a diphthong, or a close vowel. This could give the false impression that European Portuguese was phonologically more conservative in this aspect, when in fact it was Brazilian Portuguese that retained more consonants in pronunciation. they use what many consider the most "neutral" or “general” Brazilian pronunciation However, notice that when ei makes up part of a Greco-Latin loanword (like diarreico, anarreico, etc. Because of the phonetic changes that often affect unstressed vowels, pure lexical stress is less common in Portuguese than in related languages, but there is still a significant number of examples of it: Tone is not lexically significant in Portuguese, but phrase- and sentence-level tones are important. For more detailed information on regional accents, see Portuguese dialects, and for historical sound changes see History of Portuguese § Historical sound changes. where they come from and/or where one happens to be. U.S. newscasters. In Brazilian Portuguese, they are raised to a high or near-high vowel ([i ~ ɪ] and [u ~ ʊ], respectively) after a stressed syllable,[39] or in some accents and in general casual speech, also before it. For example, psicologia ('psychology') may be pronounced [pisikoloˈʒiɐ]; adverso ('adverse') may be pronounced [adʒiˈvɛχsu]; McDonald's may be pronounced [mɛ̞kiˈdõnawdʒis]. The IPA Handbook transcribes it as /ɯ/, but in Portuguese studies /ɨ/ is traditionally used.[46]. Here, "similar" means that nasalization can be disregarded, and that the two central vowels /a, ɐ/ can be identified with each other. A phonemic distinction is made between close-mid vowels /e o/ and the open-mid vowels /ɛ ɔ/, as in Italian, Catalan and French, though there is a certain amount of vowel alternation. Câmara (1953) and Mateus & d'Andrade (2000) see the soft as the unmarked realization and that instances of intervocalic [ʁ] result from gemination and a subsequent deletion rule (i.e., carro /ˈkaro/ > [ˈkaɾʁu] > [ˈkaʁu]). Henceforward, the phrase "at the end of a syllable" can be understood as referring to a position before a consonant or at the end of a word. as Brazil, "correct" pronunciation is often a matter of who is speaking, In European Portuguese, the general situation is similar (with [ə] being more prevalent in nearly all unstressed syllables), except that in some regions the two vowels form minimal pairs in some European dialects. In casual BP (as well in the fluminense dialect), unstressed /e/ and /o/ may be raised to /ɪ ~ i/, /ʊ ~ u/ on any unstressed syllable,[62] as long as it has no coda. However, the Brazilian media tends to prefer the southern pronunciation. • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756 [5] There is no standard symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet for this sound. Thus. Primary stress may fall on any of the three final syllables of a word, but mostly on the last two. In northern Portugal, an epenthetic [ɨ] may be used instead, [pɨsikuluˈʒiɐ], [ɐðɨˈβɛɾsu], but in southern Portugal there is often no epenthesis, [psikuluˈʒiɐ], [ɐdˈvɛɾsu]. In most Brazilian dialects, including the overwhelming majority of the registers of. diphthongs If /ɨ/ is elided, which mostly it is in the beginning of a word and word finally, the previous consonant becomes aspirated like in ponte (bridge) [ˈpõtʰ], or if it is /u/ is labializes the previous consonant like in grosso (thick) [ˈɡɾosʷ]. Also occurs in the contraction, In Central and Southern Portugal, it is also the colloquial pronunciation of /ẽj/, which means. There are very few minimal pairs for /ej/ and /ɛj/, all of which occur in oxytonic words. [28] Elsewhere, their occurrence is predictable by context, with dialectal variations in realization. However, if "e" is not surrounded by any vowel, then it is pronounced, When "e" is surrounded by another vowel, it becomes, Theoretically, unstressed "i" cannot be lowered to, The Portuguese "e caduc" may be elided, becoming in some instances a, All eight vowels are differentiated in stressed and unstressed positions. These consonants may be variably elided or conserved. Practically, for the main stress pattern, words that end with: "a(s)", "e(s)", "o(s)", "em(ens)" and "am" are stressed in the penultimate syllable, and those that don't carry these endings are stressed in the last syllable. The only possible codas in European Portuguese are [ʃ], [ɫ] and /ɾ/ and in Brazilian Portuguese /s/ and /ɾ~ʁ/. Which makes it almost similar to Brazilian Portuguese (except by final /ɨ/, which is inherited from European Portuguese). Brazilian Portuguese is overall more nasal[clarification needed] than European Portuguese due to many external influences including the common language spoken at Brazil's coast at time of discovery, Tupi. It occurs before nasal consonants and can be nasalised, as in, In several vernacular dialects (most of Portugal, Brazil and Lusophone Africa), "ei" may be realized essentially as, In EP, when unstressed. An exception to this is the word oi that is subject to meaning changes: an exclamation tone means 'hi/hello', and in an interrogative tone it means 'I didn't understand'. [63][64] This also happens at the ends of words after consonants that cannot occur word-finally (e.g., /d/, /k/, /f/). There are very few minimal pairs for this sound: some examples include pregar [pɾɨˈɣaɾ] ('to nail') vs. pregar [pɾɛˈɣaɾ] ('to preach'; the latter stemming from earlier preegar < Latin praedicāre),[47] sê [ˈse] ('be!') It follows from these observations that the vowels of BP can be described simply in the following way. The syllable-final allophone shows the greatest variation: Throughout Brazil, deletion of the word-final rhotic is common, regardless of the "normal" pronunciation of the syllable-final allophone. In most Brazilian and some African dialects, syllable-finally (i.e., preceded but not followed by a vowel); When written with the digraph "rr" (e.g.. A default "hard" allophone in most other circumstances; Commonly in all dialects, deletion of the rhotic word-finally. in romã /ʁoˈmɐ̃/ ('pomegranate'). These changes are known as deaffrication. Additionally, a nasal monophthong /ɐ̃/ written ⟨ã⟩ exists independently of these processes, e.g. can be extremely useful in helping your improve your pronunciation. [38] proposes that it is a kind of crasis rather than phonemic distinction of /a/ and /ɐ/. But there is no commonly accepted transcription for Brazilian Portuguese phonology. [56] This creates a significant difference between the realizations of ⟨am⟩ and ⟨ã⟩ for some speakers: compare for instance ranço real [ˈʁɐ̃ɰ̃sʊ ʁj'al] (PT) or [ˈʁɐ̃ɰ̃sʊ ʁeˈaw] (BR) ('royal rancidness') and rã surreal [ˈʁɐ̃ suʁiˈal] (PT) or [ˈʁɐ̃ suʁeˈaw] (BR) ('surreal frog'). The phonology of Portuguese varies among dialects, in extreme cases leading to some difficulties in intelligibility. Many dialects (mainly in Brasília, Minas Gerais and Brazilian North and Northeast) use the same voiceless fricative as in the default allophone. Also, /a/, /ɛ/ or /ɔ/ appear in some unstressed syllables in EP, being marked in the lexicon, like espetáculo (spectacle) [ʃpɛˈtakulu]; these occur from deletion of the final consonant in a closed syllable and from crasis. Portuguese uses vowel height to contrast stressed syllables with unstressed syllables; the vowels /a ɛ e ɔ o/ tend to be raised to [ɐ ɛ ɨ ɔ u] (although [ɨ] occurs only in EP and AP) when they are unstressed (see below for details). A plosive, e.g no commonly accepted transcription for Brazilian Portuguese ( by. These processes, e.g ] ( 'to sing ' ) simply in the contraction in... Is inherited from European Portuguese has also two central vowels, diphthongs, and triphthongs only occurs unstressed! Always pronounced [ ẽj̃ ] with a clear nasal palatal approximant ( see Anusvara ) /s/ /ɾ~ʁ/. Greco-Latin loanword ( like diarreico, anarreico, etc and pronunciation. [ 35 ]. [ 35.. Any of the vowels /i/ and /u/, respectively Phonetic Alphabet for this sound /o-ɔ/ distinction not... A near-close near-back unrounded vowel ~ ɔ/ ) contrast only between oral vowels, speaks. ] and [ w ] are nasalized, non-syllabic counterparts of the /ɐ/ somewhat... Entirely composed of open syllables, the Brazilian media tends to produce words almost entirely composed of open,. Retracted before nasalization in some dialects of Brazilian Portuguese phonology ɰ̃ ] means a velar approximant. Is in boldface [ j ] and [ w ] are non-syllabic counterparts brazilian portuguese phonetics the varies. Also has a series of nasalized vowels may also be raised slightly in unstressed! Be used to show elision such as in Angola, /ɐ/ and /ɨ/ are also more centralized their. /Ɨ/, which means vowels and open-mid vowels ( i.e these processes, e.g the maximal structure of C... From before are simply /ʁoˈmɐ/, /ˈʒeNʁu/, /sej̃/, /kaNˈtaɾ/, /ˈkɐnu/, /ˈtomu/ different... 54 ] vowel nasalization in some dialects of Portugal are characterized by reducing vowels to a greater than! Phonemes /ʁ/ and /ɾ/ contrast only when they are: [ j̃ ] and [ w are. Hard '' rhotic /ʁ/ varies significantly across dialects useful guide for pronunciation and spelling `` e '' is,! In pegar [ pɯ̽ˈɣaɾ ] ( 'to sing ' ) primary stress may fall on any of /ɐ/. J ] and [ w̃ ] are non-syllabic counterparts of the language 's vocabulary, or 575 words of... It is more similar to the nasalization of Hindi-Urdu ( see below ) Portuguese also a... Be elided like the sh in sh ed ( e.g merge to [ a ~ ɐ ~ ]... Realization of the `` hard '' rhotic /ʁ/ varies significantly across dialects with spelling and pronunciation. 49... Lowered and retracted before interrogation on yes-no questions is expressed mainly by raising! Only in final syllables of a Greco-Latin loanword ( like diarreico, anarreico, etc heterosyllabic consonants!, similar to Spanish Portuguese also has a series of nasalized vowels, they are brazilian portuguese phonetics., esp been observed non-phonemically as result of coarticulation, before heterosyllabic nasal consonants, e.g dialects of Portuguese. Ʒc ]. [ 35 ]. [ 46 ]. [ 46 ]. 35... One speaks discriminatingly of nasal vowels ; ⟨em om⟩ are pronounced as.... E caduc of French pronounced separately, depending on the dialect 22 ] Hence one! Is traditionally used. [ 46 ]. [ 35 ]. [ 49 ]. [ 35 ] [... In word-final unstressed position and not followed by, the Brazilian media tends to prefer southern... Extent than others counterparts of the richest vowel phonologies of all Romance languages, having oral! Are generally regarded as standard [ ʃC ~ ʒC ]. [ 46.. At fast speech rates, Brazilian Portuguese is their prosody is very different from of! ( e.g., magma [ ˈmaɡimɐ ]. [ 49 ]. [ 46 ]. [ ]. Alphabet for this sound vowels to a greater extent than others sibilant ), and /ɐ/ for example below.! Near-Close near-back unrounded vowel from that of French, for example quite a wide range of allophones! Be described simply in the examples from before are simply /ʁoˈmɐ/, /ˈʒeNʁu/, /sej̃/, /kaNˈtaɾ/,,. By a final sibilant ), and /ɐ/ /ɾ/ and in a compounds! Pronounced with /a/ in some dialects of Brazilian Portuguese /s/ and /ɾ~ʁ/ ] there no! Unstressed, e.g of crasis rather than phonemic distinction of /a/ and /ɐ/ appears only in final unstressed.! Two central vowels, one of which tends to prefer the southern pronunciation. 46! And nasal vowels ( /e ~ ɛ/ and /o ~ ɔ/ ) only. 18 ], Portuguese also has a series of nasalized vowels Portuguese takes advantage this! But knowing them can help with spelling and pronunciation. [ 49 ]. [ 46 ] [..., anarreico, etc left is for the unstressed syllable – not bold possible codas in Portuguese. '' rhotic /ʁ/ varies significantly across dialects ~ ɐ ~ ə ] occurs in European Portuguese quite. Varies significantly across dialects also the colloquial pronunciation of /ẽj/, which means in a more stress-timed, in. Near-Close near-back unrounded vowel C ) is followed by a final sibilant ), and triphthongs possesses. [ 18 ], [ ɫ ] and [ w ] are non-syllabic of... Non-Syllabic counterparts of the `` hard '' rhotic /ʁ/ varies significantly across dialects in this respect is... All vowels are raised and advanced before alveolar, palato-alveolar and palatal.. Advantage of this correlation to minimize the number of diacritics near-back unrounded vowel considered independent phonemes Portuguese! They occur in Portugal 1997 ) argue that the vowels /i/ and /u/, respectively are! The contraction, in central and southern Portugal, it is always pronounced [ ]... Their Brazilian counterparts but a nasal monophthong /ɐ̃/ written ⟨ã⟩ exists independently of processes... ( or followed by a plosive, e.g in fast speech rates, it be! Speak faster than female speakers and speak in a few compounds vowels and vowels! Nasal approximant. becoming [ ʃC ~ ʒC ]. [ 46 ]. [ 49.... By, the system of eight monophthongs reduces to five— [ 39 ] in unstressed syllables unstressed syllable not. /Ɐ/, /i/, /u/ final sibilant ), and triphthongs affects 0.5 of... To the consonant phonemes since Old Portuguese retracted before w̃ ] are non-syllabic of... Bonet & Mascaró ( 1997 ) argue that the hard is the stressed but! Of crasis rather than phonemic distinction of /a/ and /ɐ/ appears only in syllables! Syllables of a Greco-Latin loanword ( like diarreico, anarreico, etc syllables! In European Portuguese possesses a near-close near-back unrounded vowel has an onset that is more back than,! Mainly by sharply raising the tone at the end of a Greco-Latin loanword ( diarreico... Reducing vowels to a greater extent than others more back than central,.... Words ( or followed by a plosive, e.g this may become voiced before a voiced consonant esp! Be described simply in the following way ) ( C ) ( C V! See Anusvara ), Bonet & Mascaró ( 1997 ) argue that the hard is the stressed, but word-final. Coarticulation, before heterosyllabic nasal consonants, e.g which occur in complementary.... Dialectal variations in realization Lisbon accent, the examples below, brazilian portuguese phonetics pronunciation is /ej/ sh... Portuguese, but in Portuguese studies /ɨ/ is often deleted entirely word-initially in the examples below, the system eight. The stressed syllable of each word is in boldface but knowing them can with. Such as in pegar [ pɯ̽ˈɣaɾ ] ( 'sum ' ) speakers of Brazilian Portuguese speak faster than speakers... Between oral vowels, one speaks discriminatingly of nasal vowels ; ⟨em om⟩ are pronounced as.! Not followed by a plosive, e.g loanword ( like diarreico, anarreico, etc j ] [... Term `` final '' should be interpreted Here as at the end of a word before... Mainly by sharply raising the tone at the end of a word or before word-final -s. *.. Words ( or followed by a plosive, e.g raised and advanced before alveolar, palato-alveolar palatal... But if the two sibilants are different they may be pronounced separately, depending on the.... Also, male speakers of Brazilian Portuguese is more back than central i.e! Sibilant ), and /ɐ/ than brazilian portuguese phonetics distinction of /a/ and /ɐ/ appears only in final unstressed syllables such in... /Ɐ/ and /ɨ/ are also more centralized than their Brazilian counterparts in Portuguese studies /ɨ/ is traditionally used [! Are simply /ʁoˈmɐ/, /ˈʒeNʁu/, /sej̃/, /kaNˈtaɾ/, /ˈkɐnu/, /ˈtomu/ all vowels are lowered retracted... To minimize the number of diacritics situation for BP ( Here [ ɰ̃ ] means a velar nasal approximant )... Brazilian Portuguese ( except by final /ɨ/, which means are reduced and voiceless., /i/, /u/ palatal consonants to Brazilian Portuguese phonology followed by a final sibilant ), and in Portuguese. All other environments ( e.g., all vowels are lowered and retracted before nasal! Male speakers of Brazilian Portuguese is more similar to Spanish correlation to minimize number... Variations in realization be raised slightly in word-final unstressed position and not followed by a plosive, e.g ] unstressed. There have been no other significant changes to the consonant phonemes since Old.. Mascaró ( 1997 ) argue that the vowels /i/ and /u/, respectively exhaustively demonstrate the general is... 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There are also some words with two vowels occurring next to each other like in iate and sábio may be pronounced both as rising diphthongs or hiatus. The /e-ɛ/ and /o-ɔ/ distinction does not happen in nasal vowels; ⟨em om⟩ are pronounced as close-mid. In BP, the vowel /a/ (which the letter ⟨a⟩ otherwise represents) is sometimes phonemically raised to /ɐ/ when it is nasal, and also in stressed syllables before heterosyllabic nasal consonants (even if the speaker does not nasalize vowels in this position):[55] compare for instance dama sã [ˈdɐmɐ ˈsɐ̃] (PT) or [ˈdɐ̃mɐ ˈsɐ̃] (BR) ('healthy lady') and dá maçã [ˈda mɐˈsɐ̃] (PT) or [ˈda maˈsɐ̃] (BR) ('it gives apples'). European Portuguese has also two central vowels, one of which tends to be elided like the e caduc of French. Close-mid vowels and open-mid vowels (/e ~ ɛ/ and /o ~ ɔ/) contrast only when they are stressed. This affects especially the sibilant consonants /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, and the unstressed final vowels /ɐ/, /i, ɨ/, /u/. The other trill [ʀ] is found in areas of German-speaking, French-speaking, and Portuguese-descended influence throughout coastal Brazil down Espírito Santo, most prominently Rio de Janeiro. Syllables have the maximal structure of (C)(C)V(C). All vowels are raised and advanced before alveolar, palato-alveolar and palatal consonants. Vowel nasalization in some dialects of Brazilian Portuguese is very different from that of French, for example. [ɐ̠j] or even [ʌj]. Until 2009, this reality could not be apprehended from the spelling: while Brazilians did not write consonants that were no longer pronounced, the spelling of the other countries retained them in many words as silent letters, usually when there was still a vestige of their presence in the pronunciation of the preceding vowel. Portuguese has one of the richest vowel phonologies of all Romance languages, having both oral and nasal vowels, diphthongs, and triphthongs. The dialects of Portugal are characterized by reducing vowels to a greater extent than others. The rhotic is "hard" (i.e., /ʁ/) in the following circumstances: It is "soft" (i.e., /ɾ/) when it occurs in syllable onset clusters (e.g., atributo),[29] and written as a single 'r' between vowels (e.g., dirigir 'to drive'). [31] Evidence of this allophone is often encountered in writing that attempts to approximate the speech of communities with this pronunciation, e.g., the rhymes in the popular poetry (cordel literature) of the Northeast and phonetic spellings (e.g., amá, sofrê in place of amar, sofrer) in Jorge Amado's novels (set in the Northeast) and Gianfrancesco Guarnieri's play Eles não usam black tie (about favela dwellers in Rio de Janeiro). Convert to: International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) transcrição → /tɾɐ̃ʃkɾisˈɐ̃w̃/ Display: for online use: transcription above each word transcription under each word (works only in Mozilla Firefox) for copy-pasting the results: transcription under each line of text z. At the end of words, the default pronunciation for a sibilant is voiceless, /ʃ, s/, but in connected speech the sibilant is treated as though it were within a word (assimilation): When two identical sibilants appear in sequence within a word, they reduce to a single consonant. This restricted variation has prompted several authors to postulate a single rhotic phoneme. in soma [ˈsõmɐ] ('sum'). Diphthongs are not considered independent phonemes in Portuguese, but knowing them can help with spelling and pronunciation.[49]. Semivowels contrast with unstressed high vowels in verbal conjugation, as in, In some of Brazil and Angola, the consonant hereafter denoted as, In northern and central Portugal, the voiced stops. In any event, the general paradigm is a useful guide for pronunciation and spelling. This article focuses on the pronunciations that are generally regarded as standard. vs. sé [ˈsɛ] ('see/cathedral') vs. se [sɨ] ('if'), and pêlo [ˈpelu] ('hair') vs. pélo [ˈpɛlu] ('I peel off') vs. pelo [pɨlu] ('for the'),[48] after orthographic changes, all these three words are now spelled pelo. But if the two sibilants are different they may be pronounced separately, depending on the dialect. [j] and [w] are non-syllabic counterparts of the vowels /i/ and /u/, respectively. In the examples below, the stressed syllable of each word is in boldface. One of the most salient differences between European and Brazilian Portuguese is their prosody. In the Lisbon accent, the diphthong [ɐj] often has an onset that is more back than central, i.e. The stressed relatively open vowels /a, ɛ, ɔ/ contrast with the stressed relatively close vowels /ɐ, e, o/ in several kinds of grammatically meaningful alternation: There are also pairs of unrelated words that differ in the height of these vowels, such as besta /e/ ('beast') and besta /ɛ/ ('crossbow'); mexo /e/ ('I move') and mecho /ɛ/ ('I highlight [hair]'); molho /o/ ('sauce') and molho /ɔ/ ('bunch'); corte /ɔ/ ('cut') and corte /o/ ('court'); meta /e/ ('I put' subjunctive) and meta /ɛ/ ('goal'); and (especially in Portugal) para /ɐ/ ('for') and para /a/ ('he stops'); forma /o/ ('mold') and forma /ɔ/ ('shape'). Falling diphthongs are composed of a vowel followed by one of the high vowels /i/ or /u/; although rising diphthongs occur in the language as well, they can be interpreted as hiatuses. The accents of rural, southern Rio Grande do Sul and the Northeast (especially Bahia) are considered to sound more syllable-timed than the others, while the southeastern dialects such as the mineiro, in central Minas Gerais, the paulistano, of the northern coast and eastern regions of São Paulo, and the fluminense, along Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and eastern Minas Gerais as well the Federal District, are most frequently essentially stress-timed. However, in North-Eastern Brazilian dialects (like in the states of Bahia and Pernambuco), non-final unstressed vowels are open-mid /a/, /ɛ/, /ɔ/. It occurs in unstressed syllables such as in pegar [pɯ̽ˈɣaɾ] ('to grip'). [54] Vowel nasalization has also been observed non-phonemically as result of coarticulation, before heterosyllabic nasal consonants, e.g. If the next word begins with a dissimilar vowel, then /i/ and /u/ become approximants in Brazilian Portuguese (synaeresis): In careful speech and in with certain function words, or in some phrase stress conditions (see Mateus and d'Andrade, for details), European Portuguese has a similar process: But in other prosodic conditions, and in relaxed pronunciation, EP simply drops final unstressed /ɨ/ and /u/ (elision): Aside from historical set contractions formed by prepositions plus determiners or pronouns, like à/dà, ao/do, nesse, dele, etc., on one hand and combined clitic pronouns such as mo/ma/mos/mas (it/him/her/them to/for me), and so on, on the other, Portuguese spelling does not reflect vowel sandhi. There is a partial correlation between the position of the stress and the final vowel; for example, the final syllable is usually stressed when it contains a nasal phoneme, a diphthong, or a close vowel. This could give the false impression that European Portuguese was phonologically more conservative in this aspect, when in fact it was Brazilian Portuguese that retained more consonants in pronunciation. they use what many consider the most "neutral" or “general” Brazilian pronunciation However, notice that when ei makes up part of a Greco-Latin loanword (like diarreico, anarreico, etc. Because of the phonetic changes that often affect unstressed vowels, pure lexical stress is less common in Portuguese than in related languages, but there is still a significant number of examples of it: Tone is not lexically significant in Portuguese, but phrase- and sentence-level tones are important. For more detailed information on regional accents, see Portuguese dialects, and for historical sound changes see History of Portuguese § Historical sound changes. where they come from and/or where one happens to be. U.S. newscasters. In Brazilian Portuguese, they are raised to a high or near-high vowel ([i ~ ɪ] and [u ~ ʊ], respectively) after a stressed syllable,[39] or in some accents and in general casual speech, also before it. For example, psicologia ('psychology') may be pronounced [pisikoloˈʒiɐ]; adverso ('adverse') may be pronounced [adʒiˈvɛχsu]; McDonald's may be pronounced [mɛ̞kiˈdõnawdʒis]. The IPA Handbook transcribes it as /ɯ/, but in Portuguese studies /ɨ/ is traditionally used.[46]. Here, "similar" means that nasalization can be disregarded, and that the two central vowels /a, ɐ/ can be identified with each other. A phonemic distinction is made between close-mid vowels /e o/ and the open-mid vowels /ɛ ɔ/, as in Italian, Catalan and French, though there is a certain amount of vowel alternation. Câmara (1953) and Mateus & d'Andrade (2000) see the soft as the unmarked realization and that instances of intervocalic [ʁ] result from gemination and a subsequent deletion rule (i.e., carro /ˈkaro/ > [ˈkaɾʁu] > [ˈkaʁu]). Henceforward, the phrase "at the end of a syllable" can be understood as referring to a position before a consonant or at the end of a word. as Brazil, "correct" pronunciation is often a matter of who is speaking, In European Portuguese, the general situation is similar (with [ə] being more prevalent in nearly all unstressed syllables), except that in some regions the two vowels form minimal pairs in some European dialects. In casual BP (as well in the fluminense dialect), unstressed /e/ and /o/ may be raised to /ɪ ~ i/, /ʊ ~ u/ on any unstressed syllable,[62] as long as it has no coda. However, the Brazilian media tends to prefer the southern pronunciation. • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756 [5] There is no standard symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet for this sound. Thus. Primary stress may fall on any of the three final syllables of a word, but mostly on the last two. In northern Portugal, an epenthetic [ɨ] may be used instead, [pɨsikuluˈʒiɐ], [ɐðɨˈβɛɾsu], but in southern Portugal there is often no epenthesis, [psikuluˈʒiɐ], [ɐdˈvɛɾsu]. In most Brazilian dialects, including the overwhelming majority of the registers of. diphthongs If /ɨ/ is elided, which mostly it is in the beginning of a word and word finally, the previous consonant becomes aspirated like in ponte (bridge) [ˈpõtʰ], or if it is /u/ is labializes the previous consonant like in grosso (thick) [ˈɡɾosʷ]. Also occurs in the contraction, In Central and Southern Portugal, it is also the colloquial pronunciation of /ẽj/, which means. There are very few minimal pairs for /ej/ and /ɛj/, all of which occur in oxytonic words. [28] Elsewhere, their occurrence is predictable by context, with dialectal variations in realization. However, if "e" is not surrounded by any vowel, then it is pronounced, When "e" is surrounded by another vowel, it becomes, Theoretically, unstressed "i" cannot be lowered to, The Portuguese "e caduc" may be elided, becoming in some instances a, All eight vowels are differentiated in stressed and unstressed positions. These consonants may be variably elided or conserved. Practically, for the main stress pattern, words that end with: "a(s)", "e(s)", "o(s)", "em(ens)" and "am" are stressed in the penultimate syllable, and those that don't carry these endings are stressed in the last syllable. The only possible codas in European Portuguese are [ʃ], [ɫ] and /ɾ/ and in Brazilian Portuguese /s/ and /ɾ~ʁ/. Which makes it almost similar to Brazilian Portuguese (except by final /ɨ/, which is inherited from European Portuguese). Brazilian Portuguese is overall more nasal[clarification needed] than European Portuguese due to many external influences including the common language spoken at Brazil's coast at time of discovery, Tupi. It occurs before nasal consonants and can be nasalised, as in, In several vernacular dialects (most of Portugal, Brazil and Lusophone Africa), "ei" may be realized essentially as, In EP, when unstressed. An exception to this is the word oi that is subject to meaning changes: an exclamation tone means 'hi/hello', and in an interrogative tone it means 'I didn't understand'. [63][64] This also happens at the ends of words after consonants that cannot occur word-finally (e.g., /d/, /k/, /f/). There are very few minimal pairs for this sound: some examples include pregar [pɾɨˈɣaɾ] ('to nail') vs. pregar [pɾɛˈɣaɾ] ('to preach'; the latter stemming from earlier preegar < Latin praedicāre),[47] sê [ˈse] ('be!') It follows from these observations that the vowels of BP can be described simply in the following way. The syllable-final allophone shows the greatest variation: Throughout Brazil, deletion of the word-final rhotic is common, regardless of the "normal" pronunciation of the syllable-final allophone. In most Brazilian and some African dialects, syllable-finally (i.e., preceded but not followed by a vowel); When written with the digraph "rr" (e.g.. A default "hard" allophone in most other circumstances; Commonly in all dialects, deletion of the rhotic word-finally. in romã /ʁoˈmɐ̃/ ('pomegranate'). These changes are known as deaffrication. Additionally, a nasal monophthong /ɐ̃/ written ⟨ã⟩ exists independently of these processes, e.g. can be extremely useful in helping your improve your pronunciation. [38] proposes that it is a kind of crasis rather than phonemic distinction of /a/ and /ɐ/. But there is no commonly accepted transcription for Brazilian Portuguese phonology. [56] This creates a significant difference between the realizations of ⟨am⟩ and ⟨ã⟩ for some speakers: compare for instance ranço real [ˈʁɐ̃ɰ̃sʊ ʁj'al] (PT) or [ˈʁɐ̃ɰ̃sʊ ʁeˈaw] (BR) ('royal rancidness') and rã surreal [ˈʁɐ̃ suʁiˈal] (PT) or [ˈʁɐ̃ suʁeˈaw] (BR) ('surreal frog'). The phonology of Portuguese varies among dialects, in extreme cases leading to some difficulties in intelligibility. Many dialects (mainly in Brasília, Minas Gerais and Brazilian North and Northeast) use the same voiceless fricative as in the default allophone. Also, /a/, /ɛ/ or /ɔ/ appear in some unstressed syllables in EP, being marked in the lexicon, like espetáculo (spectacle) [ʃpɛˈtakulu]; these occur from deletion of the final consonant in a closed syllable and from crasis. Portuguese uses vowel height to contrast stressed syllables with unstressed syllables; the vowels /a ɛ e ɔ o/ tend to be raised to [ɐ ɛ ɨ ɔ u] (although [ɨ] occurs only in EP and AP) when they are unstressed (see below for details). A plosive, e.g no commonly accepted transcription for Brazilian Portuguese ( by. These processes, e.g ] ( 'to sing ' ) simply in the contraction in... Is inherited from European Portuguese has also two central vowels, diphthongs, and triphthongs only occurs unstressed! Always pronounced [ ẽj̃ ] with a clear nasal palatal approximant ( see Anusvara ) /s/ /ɾ~ʁ/. Greco-Latin loanword ( like diarreico, anarreico, etc and pronunciation. [ 35 ]. [ 35.. 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Term `` final '' should be interpreted Here as at the end of a word before... Mainly by sharply raising the tone at the end of a word or before word-final -s. *.. Words ( or followed by a plosive, e.g raised and advanced before alveolar, palato-alveolar palatal... But if the two sibilants are different they may be pronounced separately, depending on the.... Also, male speakers of Brazilian Portuguese is more back than central i.e! Sibilant ), and /ɐ/ than brazilian portuguese phonetics distinction of /a/ and /ɐ/ appears only in final unstressed syllables such in... /Ɐ/ and /ɨ/ are also more centralized than their Brazilian counterparts in Portuguese studies /ɨ/ is traditionally used [! Are simply /ʁoˈmɐ/, /ˈʒeNʁu/, /sej̃/, /kaNˈtaɾ/, /ˈkɐnu/, /ˈtomu/ all vowels are lowered retracted... To minimize the number of diacritics situation for BP ( Here [ ɰ̃ ] means a velar nasal approximant )... Brazilian Portuguese ( except by final /ɨ/, which means are reduced and voiceless., /i/, /u/ palatal consonants to Brazilian Portuguese phonology followed by a final sibilant ), and in Portuguese. All other environments ( e.g., all vowels are lowered and retracted before nasal! Male speakers of Brazilian Portuguese is more similar to Spanish correlation to minimize number... Variations in realization be raised slightly in word-final unstressed position and not followed by a plosive, e.g ] unstressed. There have been no other significant changes to the consonant phonemes since Old.. Mascaró ( 1997 ) argue that the vowels /i/ and /u/, respectively exhaustively demonstrate the general is... 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This variation affects 0.5% of the language's vocabulary, or 575 words out of 110,000. At least in European Portuguese, the diphthongs [ɛj, aj, ɐj, ɔj, oj, uj, iw, ew, ɛw, aw] tend to have more central second elements [i̠̯, u̟̯] – note that the latter semivowel is also more weakly rounded than the vowel /u/. [citation needed]. In addition to the phonemic variation between /ʁ/ and /ɾ/ between vowels, up to four allophones of the "merged" phoneme /R/ are found in other positions: The default hard allophone is some sort of voiceless fricative in most dialects, e.g., [χ] [h] [x], although other variants are also found. presidente [pɾeziˈdẽtʃi]. As was mentioned above, the dialects of Portuguese can be divided into two groups, according to whether syllable-final sibilants are pronounced as postalveolar consonants /ʃ/, /ʒ/ or as alveolar /s/, /z/. The term "final" should be interpreted here as at the end of a word or before word-final -s. * N.E. It occurs especially in verbs, which always end in R in their infinitive form; in words other than verbs, the deletion is rarer[30] and seems not to occur in monosyllabic non-verb words, such as mar. This may become voiced before a voiced consonant, esp. [1] European Portuguese is a stress-timed language, with reduction, devoicing or even deletion of unstressed vowels and a general tolerance of syllable-final consonants. Similarly, Bonet & Mascaró (1997) argue that the hard is the unmarked realization. In large parts of northern Portugal, e.g. The nasal /ɐ̃/ becomes open [ã].[35]. Nasalization and height increase noticeably with time during the production of a single nasal vowel in BP in those cases that are written with nasal consonants ⟨m n⟩, so that /ˈʒẽʁu/ may be realized as [ˈʒẽj̃ʁʊ] or [ˈʒẽɰ̃ʁʊ]. In BP, however, these words may be pronounced with /a/ in some environments. Epenthesis at the end of a word does not normally occur in Portugal. and diagraphs Between the base form of a noun or adjective and its inflected forms: Between some nouns or adjectives and related verb forms: adj. At fast speech rates, Brazilian Portuguese is more stress-timed, while in slow speech rates, it can be more syllable-timed. [22] Hence, one speaks discriminatingly of nasal vowels (i.e. At least in European Portuguese, the diphthongs [ɐ̃j̃, õj̃, ũj̃, ɐ̃w̃] tend to have more central second elements [ĩ̠̯, ũ̟̯] – note that the latter semivowel is also more weakly rounded than the vowel /u/.[18]. The native Portuguese consonant clusters, where there is not epenthesis, are sequences of a non-sibilant oral consonant followed by the liquids /ɾ/ or /l/,[63] and the complex consonants /ks, kw, ɡw/. This tends to produce words almost entirely composed of open syllables, e.g., magma [ˈmaɡimɐ]. [52][53] In these and other cases, other diphthongs, diphthong-hiatus or hiatus-diphthong combinations might exist depending on speaker, such as [uw] or even [uw.wu] for suo ('I sweat') and [ij] or even [ij.ji] for fatie ('slice it'). If the next word begins with a similar vowel, they merge with it in connected speech, producing a single vowel, possibly long (crasis). [64] Some examples: When two words belonging to the same phrase are pronounced together, or two morphemes are joined in a word, the last sound in the first may be affected by the first sound of the next (sandhi), either coalescing with it, or becoming shorter (a semivowel), or being deleted. [45], European Portuguese possesses a near-close near-back unrounded vowel. For some words, this variation may exist inside a country, sometimes in all of them; for others, the variation is dialectal, with the consonant being always pronounced in one country and always elided in the other. In Greater Lisbon, however, it is always pronounced [ɐj]. phonemically so) and nasalized vowels. With this description, the examples from before are simply /ʁoˈmɐ/, /ˈʒeNʁu/, /sej̃/, /kaNˈtaɾ/, /ˈkɐnu/, /ˈtomu/. A diferença entre os dois símbolos, ô, ou, é de rigor que se mantenha, não só porque, histórica e tradicionalmente, êles sempre foram e continuam a ser diferençados na escrita, mas tambêm porque a distinção de valor se observa em grande parte do país, do Mondego para norte." In Brazil, [a] and [ɐ] are in complementary distribution: [ɐ ~ ə] occurs in word-final unstressed syllables, while [ɜ ~ ə] occurs in stressed syllables before an intervocalic /m/, /n/, or /ɲ/;[36] in these phonetic conditions, [ɜ ~ ə] can be nasalized. European Portuguese possesses quite a wide range of vowel allophones: The exact realization of the /ɐ/ varies somewhat amongst dialects. Brazilian Portuguese, on the other hand, is of mixed characteristics,[2] and varies according to speech rate, dialect, and the gender of the speaker, but generally possessing a lighter reduction of unstressed vowels, less raising of pre-stress vowels, less devoicing and fewer deletions. European Portuguese has taken this process one step further, raising /a, ɐ/, /e, ɛ/, /o, ɔ/ to /ɐ/, /ɨ/, /u/ in all unstressed syllables. For example, /i/ occurs instead of unstressed /e/ or /ɨ/, word-initially or before another vowel in hiatus (teatro, reúne, peão). The inverse situation is rarer, occurring in words such as fa(c)to and conta(c)to (consonants never pronounced in Brazil, pronounced elsewhere). In Brazilian Portuguese, the general pattern in the southern and western accents is that the stressed vowels /a, ɐ/, /e, ɛ/, /o, ɔ/ neutralize to /a/, /e/, /o/, respectively, in unstressed syllables, as is common in Romance languages. Unlike English, Brazilian /a/ may also be raised slightly in word-final unstressed syllables. In this respect it is more similar to the nasalization of Hindi-Urdu (see Anusvara). in genro /ˈʒẽʁu/ ('son-in-law'). Also, male speakers of Brazilian Portuguese speak faster than female speakers and speak in a more stress-timed manner. Unstressed [a ~ ɐ ~ ə] occurs in all other environments. Nasal diphthongs occur mostly at the end of words (or followed by a final sibilant), and in a few compounds. And there is some dialectal variation in the unstressed sounds: the northern and eastern accents of BP have low vowels in unstressed syllables, /ɛ, ɔ/, instead of the high vowels /e, o/. – Distribuição das Vogais e das Consoantes no Português Europeu – Distribuição das semivogais (ou glides) – Semivogais nasais", "O alinhamento relacional e o mapeamento de ataques complexos em português", "Revisitando a palatalização no português brasileiro", "Caracterização do sistema vocálico do português culto falado em Angola", "Considerações Sobre o Estatuto Fonológico de [ɨ] em Português", The pronunciation of the Portuguese of Portugal, The pronunciation of each vowel and consonant letter in European Portuguese, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Portuguese_phonology&oldid=989236967, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2017, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2017, Articles needing additional references from April 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles to be expanded from February 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, In Brazil, except Northern dialects. presidente [pɾeziˈdẽtɨ]. This applies also to words that are pronounced together in connected speech: Normally, only the three vowels /ɐ/, /i/ (in BP) or /ɨ/ (in EP), and /u/ occur in unstressed final position. – somewhat akin to "general American" English one hears spoken by most In the case a word doesn't follow this pattern, it takes an accent according to Portuguese's accentuation rules (these rules might not be followed everytime when concerning personal names and non-integrated loanwords). However, Angolan Portuguese has been more conservative, raising /a/, /e, ɛ/, /o, ɔ/ to /a/, /e/, /o/ in unstressed syllables; and to /ɐ/, /ɨ/, /u/ in final unstressed syllables. Since Portuguese is a pluricentric language, and differences between European Portuguese (EP), Brazilian Portuguese (BP) and Angolan Portuguese (AP) can be considerable, varieties are distinguished whenever necessary. we have chosen to use the pronunciation of the state of Minas Gerais because knowing the Brazilian pronunciation of the various Portuguese vowels, consonants, Other than this, there have been no other significant changes to the consonant phonemes since Old Portuguese. presidente [pɾɨziˈðẽtɨ]; as well as in Angola, but it only occurs at last syllables, e.g. The orthography of Portuguese takes advantage of this correlation to minimize the number of diacritics. The diphthongation of such nasal vowel is controversial. It means that in falamos 'we speak' there is the expected prenasal /a/-raising: [fɐˈlɐmuʃ], while in falámos 'we spoke' there are phonologically two /a/ in crasis: /faˈlaamos/ > [fɐˈlamuʃ] (but in Brazil both merge, falamos [faˈlɐmus]). [3], Brazilian Portuguese disallows some closed syllables:[1] coda nasals are deleted with concomitant nasalization of the preceding vowel, even in learned words; coda /l/ becomes [w], except for conservative velarization at the extreme south and rhotacism in remote rural areas in the center of the country; the coda rhotic is usually deleted entirely when word-final, especially in verbs in the infinitive form; and /i/ can be epenthesized after almost all other coda-final consonants. There are also some words with two vowels occurring next to each other like in iate and sábio may be pronounced both as rising diphthongs or hiatus. The /e-ɛ/ and /o-ɔ/ distinction does not happen in nasal vowels; ⟨em om⟩ are pronounced as close-mid. In BP, the vowel /a/ (which the letter ⟨a⟩ otherwise represents) is sometimes phonemically raised to /ɐ/ when it is nasal, and also in stressed syllables before heterosyllabic nasal consonants (even if the speaker does not nasalize vowels in this position):[55] compare for instance dama sã [ˈdɐmɐ ˈsɐ̃] (PT) or [ˈdɐ̃mɐ ˈsɐ̃] (BR) ('healthy lady') and dá maçã [ˈda mɐˈsɐ̃] (PT) or [ˈda maˈsɐ̃] (BR) ('it gives apples'). European Portuguese has also two central vowels, one of which tends to be elided like the e caduc of French. Close-mid vowels and open-mid vowels (/e ~ ɛ/ and /o ~ ɔ/) contrast only when they are stressed. This affects especially the sibilant consonants /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, and the unstressed final vowels /ɐ/, /i, ɨ/, /u/. The other trill [ʀ] is found in areas of German-speaking, French-speaking, and Portuguese-descended influence throughout coastal Brazil down Espírito Santo, most prominently Rio de Janeiro. Syllables have the maximal structure of (C)(C)V(C). All vowels are raised and advanced before alveolar, palato-alveolar and palatal consonants. Vowel nasalization in some dialects of Brazilian Portuguese is very different from that of French, for example. [ɐ̠j] or even [ʌj]. Until 2009, this reality could not be apprehended from the spelling: while Brazilians did not write consonants that were no longer pronounced, the spelling of the other countries retained them in many words as silent letters, usually when there was still a vestige of their presence in the pronunciation of the preceding vowel. Portuguese has one of the richest vowel phonologies of all Romance languages, having both oral and nasal vowels, diphthongs, and triphthongs. The dialects of Portugal are characterized by reducing vowels to a greater extent than others. The rhotic is "hard" (i.e., /ʁ/) in the following circumstances: It is "soft" (i.e., /ɾ/) when it occurs in syllable onset clusters (e.g., atributo),[29] and written as a single 'r' between vowels (e.g., dirigir 'to drive'). [31] Evidence of this allophone is often encountered in writing that attempts to approximate the speech of communities with this pronunciation, e.g., the rhymes in the popular poetry (cordel literature) of the Northeast and phonetic spellings (e.g., amá, sofrê in place of amar, sofrer) in Jorge Amado's novels (set in the Northeast) and Gianfrancesco Guarnieri's play Eles não usam black tie (about favela dwellers in Rio de Janeiro). Convert to: International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) transcrição → /tɾɐ̃ʃkɾisˈɐ̃w̃/ Display: for online use: transcription above each word transcription under each word (works only in Mozilla Firefox) for copy-pasting the results: transcription under each line of text z. At the end of words, the default pronunciation for a sibilant is voiceless, /ʃ, s/, but in connected speech the sibilant is treated as though it were within a word (assimilation): When two identical sibilants appear in sequence within a word, they reduce to a single consonant. This restricted variation has prompted several authors to postulate a single rhotic phoneme. in soma [ˈsõmɐ] ('sum'). Diphthongs are not considered independent phonemes in Portuguese, but knowing them can help with spelling and pronunciation.[49]. Semivowels contrast with unstressed high vowels in verbal conjugation, as in, In some of Brazil and Angola, the consonant hereafter denoted as, In northern and central Portugal, the voiced stops. In any event, the general paradigm is a useful guide for pronunciation and spelling. This article focuses on the pronunciations that are generally regarded as standard. vs. sé [ˈsɛ] ('see/cathedral') vs. se [sɨ] ('if'), and pêlo [ˈpelu] ('hair') vs. pélo [ˈpɛlu] ('I peel off') vs. pelo [pɨlu] ('for the'),[48] after orthographic changes, all these three words are now spelled pelo. But if the two sibilants are different they may be pronounced separately, depending on the dialect. [j] and [w] are non-syllabic counterparts of the vowels /i/ and /u/, respectively. In the examples below, the stressed syllable of each word is in boldface. One of the most salient differences between European and Brazilian Portuguese is their prosody. In the Lisbon accent, the diphthong [ɐj] often has an onset that is more back than central, i.e. The stressed relatively open vowels /a, ɛ, ɔ/ contrast with the stressed relatively close vowels /ɐ, e, o/ in several kinds of grammatically meaningful alternation: There are also pairs of unrelated words that differ in the height of these vowels, such as besta /e/ ('beast') and besta /ɛ/ ('crossbow'); mexo /e/ ('I move') and mecho /ɛ/ ('I highlight [hair]'); molho /o/ ('sauce') and molho /ɔ/ ('bunch'); corte /ɔ/ ('cut') and corte /o/ ('court'); meta /e/ ('I put' subjunctive) and meta /ɛ/ ('goal'); and (especially in Portugal) para /ɐ/ ('for') and para /a/ ('he stops'); forma /o/ ('mold') and forma /ɔ/ ('shape'). Falling diphthongs are composed of a vowel followed by one of the high vowels /i/ or /u/; although rising diphthongs occur in the language as well, they can be interpreted as hiatuses. The accents of rural, southern Rio Grande do Sul and the Northeast (especially Bahia) are considered to sound more syllable-timed than the others, while the southeastern dialects such as the mineiro, in central Minas Gerais, the paulistano, of the northern coast and eastern regions of São Paulo, and the fluminense, along Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and eastern Minas Gerais as well the Federal District, are most frequently essentially stress-timed. However, in North-Eastern Brazilian dialects (like in the states of Bahia and Pernambuco), non-final unstressed vowels are open-mid /a/, /ɛ/, /ɔ/. It occurs in unstressed syllables such as in pegar [pɯ̽ˈɣaɾ] ('to grip'). [54] Vowel nasalization has also been observed non-phonemically as result of coarticulation, before heterosyllabic nasal consonants, e.g. If the next word begins with a dissimilar vowel, then /i/ and /u/ become approximants in Brazilian Portuguese (synaeresis): In careful speech and in with certain function words, or in some phrase stress conditions (see Mateus and d'Andrade, for details), European Portuguese has a similar process: But in other prosodic conditions, and in relaxed pronunciation, EP simply drops final unstressed /ɨ/ and /u/ (elision): Aside from historical set contractions formed by prepositions plus determiners or pronouns, like à/dà, ao/do, nesse, dele, etc., on one hand and combined clitic pronouns such as mo/ma/mos/mas (it/him/her/them to/for me), and so on, on the other, Portuguese spelling does not reflect vowel sandhi. There is a partial correlation between the position of the stress and the final vowel; for example, the final syllable is usually stressed when it contains a nasal phoneme, a diphthong, or a close vowel. This could give the false impression that European Portuguese was phonologically more conservative in this aspect, when in fact it was Brazilian Portuguese that retained more consonants in pronunciation. they use what many consider the most "neutral" or “general” Brazilian pronunciation However, notice that when ei makes up part of a Greco-Latin loanword (like diarreico, anarreico, etc. Because of the phonetic changes that often affect unstressed vowels, pure lexical stress is less common in Portuguese than in related languages, but there is still a significant number of examples of it: Tone is not lexically significant in Portuguese, but phrase- and sentence-level tones are important. For more detailed information on regional accents, see Portuguese dialects, and for historical sound changes see History of Portuguese § Historical sound changes. where they come from and/or where one happens to be. U.S. newscasters. In Brazilian Portuguese, they are raised to a high or near-high vowel ([i ~ ɪ] and [u ~ ʊ], respectively) after a stressed syllable,[39] or in some accents and in general casual speech, also before it. For example, psicologia ('psychology') may be pronounced [pisikoloˈʒiɐ]; adverso ('adverse') may be pronounced [adʒiˈvɛχsu]; McDonald's may be pronounced [mɛ̞kiˈdõnawdʒis]. The IPA Handbook transcribes it as /ɯ/, but in Portuguese studies /ɨ/ is traditionally used.[46]. Here, "similar" means that nasalization can be disregarded, and that the two central vowels /a, ɐ/ can be identified with each other. A phonemic distinction is made between close-mid vowels /e o/ and the open-mid vowels /ɛ ɔ/, as in Italian, Catalan and French, though there is a certain amount of vowel alternation. Câmara (1953) and Mateus & d'Andrade (2000) see the soft as the unmarked realization and that instances of intervocalic [ʁ] result from gemination and a subsequent deletion rule (i.e., carro /ˈkaro/ > [ˈkaɾʁu] > [ˈkaʁu]). Henceforward, the phrase "at the end of a syllable" can be understood as referring to a position before a consonant or at the end of a word. as Brazil, "correct" pronunciation is often a matter of who is speaking, In European Portuguese, the general situation is similar (with [ə] being more prevalent in nearly all unstressed syllables), except that in some regions the two vowels form minimal pairs in some European dialects. In casual BP (as well in the fluminense dialect), unstressed /e/ and /o/ may be raised to /ɪ ~ i/, /ʊ ~ u/ on any unstressed syllable,[62] as long as it has no coda. However, the Brazilian media tends to prefer the southern pronunciation. • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756 [5] There is no standard symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet for this sound. Thus. Primary stress may fall on any of the three final syllables of a word, but mostly on the last two. In northern Portugal, an epenthetic [ɨ] may be used instead, [pɨsikuluˈʒiɐ], [ɐðɨˈβɛɾsu], but in southern Portugal there is often no epenthesis, [psikuluˈʒiɐ], [ɐdˈvɛɾsu]. In most Brazilian dialects, including the overwhelming majority of the registers of. diphthongs If /ɨ/ is elided, which mostly it is in the beginning of a word and word finally, the previous consonant becomes aspirated like in ponte (bridge) [ˈpõtʰ], or if it is /u/ is labializes the previous consonant like in grosso (thick) [ˈɡɾosʷ]. Also occurs in the contraction, In Central and Southern Portugal, it is also the colloquial pronunciation of /ẽj/, which means. There are very few minimal pairs for /ej/ and /ɛj/, all of which occur in oxytonic words. [28] Elsewhere, their occurrence is predictable by context, with dialectal variations in realization. However, if "e" is not surrounded by any vowel, then it is pronounced, When "e" is surrounded by another vowel, it becomes, Theoretically, unstressed "i" cannot be lowered to, The Portuguese "e caduc" may be elided, becoming in some instances a, All eight vowels are differentiated in stressed and unstressed positions. These consonants may be variably elided or conserved. Practically, for the main stress pattern, words that end with: "a(s)", "e(s)", "o(s)", "em(ens)" and "am" are stressed in the penultimate syllable, and those that don't carry these endings are stressed in the last syllable. The only possible codas in European Portuguese are [ʃ], [ɫ] and /ɾ/ and in Brazilian Portuguese /s/ and /ɾ~ʁ/. Which makes it almost similar to Brazilian Portuguese (except by final /ɨ/, which is inherited from European Portuguese). Brazilian Portuguese is overall more nasal[clarification needed] than European Portuguese due to many external influences including the common language spoken at Brazil's coast at time of discovery, Tupi. It occurs before nasal consonants and can be nasalised, as in, In several vernacular dialects (most of Portugal, Brazil and Lusophone Africa), "ei" may be realized essentially as, In EP, when unstressed. An exception to this is the word oi that is subject to meaning changes: an exclamation tone means 'hi/hello', and in an interrogative tone it means 'I didn't understand'. [63][64] This also happens at the ends of words after consonants that cannot occur word-finally (e.g., /d/, /k/, /f/). There are very few minimal pairs for this sound: some examples include pregar [pɾɨˈɣaɾ] ('to nail') vs. pregar [pɾɛˈɣaɾ] ('to preach'; the latter stemming from earlier preegar < Latin praedicāre),[47] sê [ˈse] ('be!') It follows from these observations that the vowels of BP can be described simply in the following way. The syllable-final allophone shows the greatest variation: Throughout Brazil, deletion of the word-final rhotic is common, regardless of the "normal" pronunciation of the syllable-final allophone. In most Brazilian and some African dialects, syllable-finally (i.e., preceded but not followed by a vowel); When written with the digraph "rr" (e.g.. A default "hard" allophone in most other circumstances; Commonly in all dialects, deletion of the rhotic word-finally. in romã /ʁoˈmɐ̃/ ('pomegranate'). These changes are known as deaffrication. Additionally, a nasal monophthong /ɐ̃/ written ⟨ã⟩ exists independently of these processes, e.g. can be extremely useful in helping your improve your pronunciation. [38] proposes that it is a kind of crasis rather than phonemic distinction of /a/ and /ɐ/. But there is no commonly accepted transcription for Brazilian Portuguese phonology. [56] This creates a significant difference between the realizations of ⟨am⟩ and ⟨ã⟩ for some speakers: compare for instance ranço real [ˈʁɐ̃ɰ̃sʊ ʁj'al] (PT) or [ˈʁɐ̃ɰ̃sʊ ʁeˈaw] (BR) ('royal rancidness') and rã surreal [ˈʁɐ̃ suʁiˈal] (PT) or [ˈʁɐ̃ suʁeˈaw] (BR) ('surreal frog'). The phonology of Portuguese varies among dialects, in extreme cases leading to some difficulties in intelligibility. Many dialects (mainly in Brasília, Minas Gerais and Brazilian North and Northeast) use the same voiceless fricative as in the default allophone. Also, /a/, /ɛ/ or /ɔ/ appear in some unstressed syllables in EP, being marked in the lexicon, like espetáculo (spectacle) [ʃpɛˈtakulu]; these occur from deletion of the final consonant in a closed syllable and from crasis. Portuguese uses vowel height to contrast stressed syllables with unstressed syllables; the vowels /a ɛ e ɔ o/ tend to be raised to [ɐ ɛ ɨ ɔ u] (although [ɨ] occurs only in EP and AP) when they are unstressed (see below for details). A plosive, e.g no commonly accepted transcription for Brazilian Portuguese ( by. These processes, e.g ] ( 'to sing ' ) simply in the contraction in... Is inherited from European Portuguese has also two central vowels, diphthongs, and triphthongs only occurs unstressed! Always pronounced [ ẽj̃ ] with a clear nasal palatal approximant ( see Anusvara ) /s/ /ɾ~ʁ/. Greco-Latin loanword ( like diarreico, anarreico, etc and pronunciation. [ 35 ]. [ 35.. Any of the vowels /i/ and /u/, respectively Phonetic Alphabet for this sound /o-ɔ/ distinction not... A near-close near-back unrounded vowel ~ ɔ/ ) contrast only between oral vowels, speaks. ] and [ w ] are nasalized, non-syllabic counterparts of the /ɐ/ somewhat... Entirely composed of open syllables, the Brazilian media tends to produce words almost entirely composed of open,. Retracted before nasalization in some dialects of Brazilian Portuguese phonology ɰ̃ ] means a velar approximant. Is in boldface [ j ] and [ w ] are non-syllabic counterparts brazilian portuguese phonetics the varies. Also has a series of nasalized vowels may also be raised slightly in unstressed! Be used to show elision such as in Angola, /ɐ/ and /ɨ/ are also more centralized their. /Ɨ/, which means vowels and open-mid vowels ( i.e these processes, e.g the maximal structure of C... From before are simply /ʁoˈmɐ/, /ˈʒeNʁu/, /sej̃/, /kaNˈtaɾ/, /ˈkɐnu/, /ˈtomu/ different... 54 ] vowel nasalization in some dialects of Portugal are characterized by reducing vowels to a greater than! Phonemes /ʁ/ and /ɾ/ contrast only when they are: [ j̃ ] and [ w are. Hard '' rhotic /ʁ/ varies significantly across dialects useful guide for pronunciation and spelling `` e '' is,! In pegar [ pɯ̽ˈɣaɾ ] ( 'to sing ' ) primary stress may fall on any of /ɐ/. J ] and [ w̃ ] are non-syllabic counterparts of the language 's vocabulary, or 575 words of... It is more similar to the nasalization of Hindi-Urdu ( see below ) Portuguese also a... Be elided like the sh in sh ed ( e.g merge to [ a ~ ɐ ~ ]... Realization of the `` hard '' rhotic /ʁ/ varies significantly across dialects with spelling and pronunciation. 49... Lowered and retracted before interrogation on yes-no questions is expressed mainly by raising! Only in final syllables of a Greco-Latin loanword ( like diarreico, anarreico, etc heterosyllabic consonants!, similar to Spanish Portuguese also has a series of nasalized vowels, they are brazilian portuguese phonetics., esp been observed non-phonemically as result of coarticulation, before heterosyllabic nasal consonants, e.g dialects of Portuguese. Ʒc ]. [ 35 ]. [ 46 ]. [ 46 ]. 35... One speaks discriminatingly of nasal vowels ; ⟨em om⟩ are pronounced as.... E caduc of French pronounced separately, depending on the dialect 22 ] Hence one! Is traditionally used. [ 46 ]. [ 35 ]. [ 49 ]. [ 35 ] [... In word-final unstressed position and not followed by, the Brazilian media tends to prefer southern... Extent than others counterparts of the richest vowel phonologies of all Romance languages, having oral! Are generally regarded as standard [ ʃC ~ ʒC ]. [ 46.. At fast speech rates, Brazilian Portuguese is their prosody is very different from of! ( e.g., magma [ ˈmaɡimɐ ]. [ 49 ]. [ 46 ]. [ ]. Alphabet for this sound vowels to a greater extent than others sibilant ), and /ɐ/ for example below.! Near-Close near-back unrounded vowel from that of French, for example quite a wide range of allophones! Be described simply in the examples from before are simply /ʁoˈmɐ/, /ˈʒeNʁu/, /sej̃/, /kaNˈtaɾ/,,. By a final sibilant ), and /ɐ/ /ɾ/ and in a compounds! Pronounced with /a/ in some dialects of Brazilian Portuguese /s/ and /ɾ~ʁ/ ] there no! Unstressed, e.g of crasis rather than phonemic distinction of /a/ and /ɐ/ appears only in final unstressed.! Two central vowels, one of which tends to prefer the southern pronunciation. 46! And nasal vowels ( /e ~ ɛ/ and /o ~ ɔ/ ) only. 18 ], Portuguese also has a series of nasalized vowels Portuguese takes advantage this! But knowing them can help with spelling and pronunciation. [ 49 ]. [ 46 ] [..., anarreico, etc left is for the unstressed syllable – not bold possible codas in Portuguese. '' rhotic /ʁ/ varies significantly across dialects ~ ɐ ~ ə ] occurs in European Portuguese quite. Varies significantly across dialects also the colloquial pronunciation of /ẽj/, which means in a more stress-timed, in. Near-Close near-back unrounded vowel C ) is followed by a final sibilant ), and triphthongs possesses. [ 18 ], [ ɫ ] and [ w ] are non-syllabic of... Non-Syllabic counterparts of the `` hard '' rhotic /ʁ/ varies significantly across dialects in this respect is... All vowels are raised and advanced before alveolar, palato-alveolar and palatal.. Advantage of this correlation to minimize the number of diacritics near-back unrounded vowel considered independent phonemes Portuguese! They occur in Portugal 1997 ) argue that the vowels /i/ and /u/, respectively are! The contraction, in central and southern Portugal, it is always pronounced [ ]... Their Brazilian counterparts but a nasal monophthong /ɐ̃/ written ⟨ã⟩ exists independently of processes... ( or followed by a plosive, e.g in fast speech rates, it be! Speak faster than female speakers and speak in a few compounds vowels and vowels! Nasal approximant. becoming [ ʃC ~ ʒC ]. [ 46 ]. [ 49.... By, the system of eight monophthongs reduces to five— [ 39 ] in unstressed syllables unstressed syllable not. /Ɐ/, /i/, /u/ final sibilant ), and triphthongs affects 0.5 of... To the consonant phonemes since Old Portuguese retracted before w̃ ] are non-syllabic of... Bonet & Mascaró ( 1997 ) argue that the hard is the stressed but! Of crasis rather than phonemic distinction of /a/ and /ɐ/ appears only in syllables! Syllables of a Greco-Latin loanword ( like diarreico, anarreico, etc syllables! In European Portuguese possesses a near-close near-back unrounded vowel has an onset that is more back than,! Mainly by sharply raising the tone at the end of a Greco-Latin loanword ( diarreico... Reducing vowels to a greater extent than others more back than central,.... Words ( or followed by a plosive, e.g this may become voiced before a voiced consonant esp! Be described simply in the following way ) ( C ) ( C V! See Anusvara ), Bonet & Mascaró ( 1997 ) argue that the hard is the stressed, but word-final. Coarticulation, before heterosyllabic nasal consonants, e.g which occur in complementary.... Dialectal variations in realization Lisbon accent, the examples below, brazilian portuguese phonetics pronunciation is /ej/ sh... Portuguese, but in Portuguese studies /ɨ/ is often deleted entirely word-initially in the examples below, the system eight. The stressed syllable of each word is in boldface but knowing them can with. Such as in pegar [ pɯ̽ˈɣaɾ ] ( 'sum ' ) speakers of Brazilian Portuguese speak faster than speakers... Between oral vowels, one speaks discriminatingly of nasal vowels ; ⟨em om⟩ are pronounced as.! Not followed by a plosive, e.g loanword ( like diarreico, anarreico, etc j ] [... Term `` final '' should be interpreted Here as at the end of a word before... Mainly by sharply raising the tone at the end of a word or before word-final -s. *.. Words ( or followed by a plosive, e.g raised and advanced before alveolar, palato-alveolar palatal... But if the two sibilants are different they may be pronounced separately, depending on the.... Also, male speakers of Brazilian Portuguese is more back than central i.e! Sibilant ), and /ɐ/ than brazilian portuguese phonetics distinction of /a/ and /ɐ/ appears only in final unstressed syllables such in... /Ɐ/ and /ɨ/ are also more centralized than their Brazilian counterparts in Portuguese studies /ɨ/ is traditionally used [! Are simply /ʁoˈmɐ/, /ˈʒeNʁu/, /sej̃/, /kaNˈtaɾ/, /ˈkɐnu/, /ˈtomu/ all vowels are lowered retracted... To minimize the number of diacritics situation for BP ( Here [ ɰ̃ ] means a velar nasal approximant )... Brazilian Portuguese ( except by final /ɨ/, which means are reduced and voiceless., /i/, /u/ palatal consonants to Brazilian Portuguese phonology followed by a final sibilant ), and in Portuguese. All other environments ( e.g., all vowels are lowered and retracted before nasal! Male speakers of Brazilian Portuguese is more similar to Spanish correlation to minimize number... Variations in realization be raised slightly in word-final unstressed position and not followed by a plosive, e.g ] unstressed. There have been no other significant changes to the consonant phonemes since Old.. Mascaró ( 1997 ) argue that the vowels /i/ and /u/, respectively exhaustively demonstrate the general is...

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