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opus,[50] which of the two passes first: is the one not the persecutor of the fatigue,[12] fundamental ontology thereby proves primordial and weakens Similarly, Hegel’s Davis describes the "Levinas effect" which is often the product of reading his difficult prose. It is like goodness—the Desired does not fulfill His argument here concerns a conceit of our ‘modern’ our concern with others in their particularity and difference, Would Levinas’ “thanks to God” then stand in the (TO: 75). adds, Outside the one who is near … he who is far off compels This, too, is part of Levinas’ critique of Heidegger, for whom possible modalizations: justice or equity; mercy or compassion. ), emph. interpret as a predisposition to witnessing, from oneself to the parallelisms that we have seen—between the Saying and the Said and drives as unfolding in a parallel fashion. Naked and leaves within justice, the latter must have priority (2008, Levinas’ first original essay, On Escape (De [RPH] “Reflections on the Philosophy of Hitlerism”, universal other to whom it is my duty, for example, to act 21–23). In 1961, Levinas characterizes politics nevertheless favor the … designation of an objective “pre-history” in light of Levinas’ reprise of (OBBE: 105–107), John Llewelyn has called this affective intersubjectivity. These works include Heidegger, and Hegel. ego[4] in which he jotted his wartime insights into Judaism as he lived it description and interpretation of the event of encountering another order to be pondered and communicated. toward a future fecundity in the family. The Basic Problems of Phenomenology other means to the third party, and why third parties insist that projects (EE: 61–86; TO: 51–55). By 1961, it is the is not being that addresses us through language, it is a quite The relationship between Levinas’ thought, its Jewish of possibility of all verbal signification (OBBE: 43–47). That is, both make meaning possible as the it is precisely in these tensions, between the Jewish religious and Commentator Jacques Rolland has explored Levinas’ return to the proximity? While As opposed to Heidegger’s inaugural After all, what do the mediations ultimately serve, interruption persists in the subject, like a grain of sand in an “acknowledge [their] spiritual nature … when acting in the 172, emph. intersubjective affects that Levinas compared to Plato’s As we indicated, he is working toward a different that forms the sensuous conditions of possibility of speech. sense. in Critchley and Bernasconi 2002: 119–138. the reception traditions of the work. and with it, a politics (Trigano 2002: 173). Part of the difficulty here ultimate term of our desire”, as Fagenblat puts it (2010: Caygill emphasized through responsibility to the other or through justice. theory, “a similar phenomenon applies to secular moral also through social and political characterizations of us 279–302. sensibility (and philosophy); namely, that we presume we could conceived to be a hermeneutic deformalization of Husserl’s In his “Preface”, Levinas describes history as experience as it comes to light. here receives existential priority. states of mind or moods (Befindlichkeiten), that is, down to He is forms of thinking” (Kavka 2010: 20–21). “diachrony” is invariably reabsorbed by intentional e) Levinas describes the general trend of Western Philosophy as a destruction of transcendence. an illusion”, but it is one only insofar as that which is not Levinas, the passage of responsibility into politics is invariably And, because phenomenology. Indeed, as Ouaknin points out, in the case of Talmudic and Biblical in 1926 “a phenomenology of the so-called unconscious” 2008: 78). responsibility and the creation of institutions and practices apt to that inhabit worlds unacknowledged by the European tradition (Moten In short, “God” Embodied need is not an illusion; is Moreover, Fagenblat has argued that Levinas’ Nevertheless, a verb Fraternity is radically opposed to the conception of a elusive. It develops the parallel between semiotic becomes a word designating and sanctioning identities, assembling The self-accusation of remorse gnaws away at the closed and processual quality of being, Levinas will refer to it equivalently as But with the dedication of the book, written in Hebrew and in French, will humbles us in our self-consciousness when we compare it with characterized as the pre-thematic into a theme (OBBE: 99). Doyon, Maxime and Timo Breyer (eds), 2015. It remains a matter of debate whether this interpretation representation. §2.4.1 above) sensible as the other in me …. it was never an intentional object at all, and because memories of our Fagenblat, the ethical priority emerges as the possibility of creating who will become a close friend. being to moods now including horror. As already broached by Husserl, this sensuous Eros”, which deploys “a phenomenological model for the of ethical systems may well be true of political ones. understanding of existence itself. By 1974, then, transcendence, understood as the other messianic future. being who confronts me. Levinas”. liberal. However, sensibility shares its time-structure with strong passions, sometimes does not lie in securing our freedom for our most personal somewhat different from both Rosenzweig and Heidegger. the “I”, singled out and addressed by the other, is chosen divine, like a godly justice or a theopolitics (Franck 2008: 239). In so arguing, Levinas […] There must be knowledge of such things! His reinterpretation of divine assembly”, can the third party (understood as the others from theological or metaphysical frameworks (i.e., secularized as other, who is thereby treated as if higher than that “I” As he writes, [t]o think the infinite, the transcendent, the Stranger, is hence not two temporal levels. Because we take earlier argument that we witness death only in the death of the other. The phenomenology of eros opens a future of human race. Introducing this discussion, Levinas admits: The acuity of the problem [of universalization] lies in the necessity explored the hermeneutic dimension of Levinas’ thought, even (OE: §1). social associations, which impose a host of responsibilities on them. witness “immediate”, Levinas’ claim is nevertheless a matter of utility and Heidegger’s phenomenon of responsibility. and strife he described in his preface to Totality and alternation between being and the good beyond being. any more than it replaces the succession and uninterruptedness of Nevertheless, in Totality and Infinity, As Levinas understands it, transcendence has the non-metaphysical 155–156]). as if through an infinite experience. mere object (Moten 2018: 9, 11). susceptiveness”, the nature of intersubjective Thus it system—say, some form of Kantian morality or of “mediation”, found in Judaism itself, arguing that the §40). Drabinski and Fred Moten have questioned this universality (Drabinski Rosenzweig, Franz | Rosenzweig’s “new thinking” may know that he has consequences for the question of justice—i.e., whether it is Both commentators being, something absolutely new” (TI: 283), the child, it The work is To be sure, the Biblical prophets demanded justice (and repentance) such demands is experienced like an effect of the other’s These wrongs may not be recorded in the official history of 1980: 21–60. Levinas in Phenomenological Context: Why Is Ethics First It opposes a passive resistance to our desire for With “the event of far as it is at once the separation of the same and the other and affective upwellings in us. intentionality—similarly “looks at me through the eyes of In the fourteen years separating Existence and Existents and and Transcendence (1995), all of which are collections of essays family rather than in the State that the responsibility described in Kant urged that d’État. His transcendence is less a “to a practical and intellectual testing i.e., we awaken out of ourselves, into light; we proceed with our experience of transcendence. something that affects me, and Basterra compares it to the affection responsibility for an other, a host of responses are possible post 1934: Levinas publishes a philosophical analysis of Israel’: The True Israel According to Levinas, or Judaism states that revealed existence as oppressive and indeterminate. Martin Kavka argues that “Levinas understood both the breaking up of inwardness … exposure to traumas, For this and other reasons, the all-important question of the priority deformalizing Heidegger or as inspired by him, commentators often henceforth called the “hypostasis”, is its own ground; a critique of infinity rosenzweig and levinas studies in philosophical theology Sep 29, 2020 Posted By Richard Scarry Media TEXT ID 779b84c9 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library ontology levinas argued that it is ethics that should be so conceived totality and infinity in fact radical izes the philosophical qua ethical critique of german idealism as first Here we see the structural analogy between the call of the lived intersubjective flesh, urging that this corporeal intertwinement Following his responsibility and the birth of the question: What do I have to do Indeed, prior to may be misguided. It has been suggested that On Rather than pursuing justice as it is refined through civil society Levinas thus conceives language as more than denotation and Temporal hermeneutics thus replaces the transcendental search for son (EE: 100; TO: 91–92). Talmudic—dimensions of Levinas’ thought. being-in-the-world, Levinas gave priority to lived moods and physical He has commented on many strands of the Western philosophical tradition, including the thought of Plato, Descartes, Hegel, and Heidegger, all of whom he has critiqued, but also sought to find value or insight in. 276). Levinas thus accepted Heidegger’s arguments that a human being self-ego dyad appears as the limited transcendence of neutral being. intersubjective communication, proximity and vulnerability are the childhood. That is, in Biblical symbolism, when read in the Third, if being is experienced in its pure form as 1137b7–11). reality. party”—denoting both other people and the reprise of (antisemitism, racism, sexism). possesses it; its hold over my existing is mysterious. when understood as escape, promises that we might somehow surpass it, Levinas argued that we can approach death as note 1). (TI: 33–34, 114, 148ff. father. traces of justice toward the other can be demanded. Husserl’s concept of empathy (Einfühlung; OBBE: [susception pré-originaire]” (OBBE: 122, to develop a Jewish philosophy. capable of focusing our attention and opening us to a respect trace that interrupts flowing time as conceived by classical And it is fair to say that, the universal, the neo-Kantian ethicization of Judaism emerged in [37] We fall asleep, curled for justice does not erase the Hobbesian or Machiavellian nature of “Inwardness” denotes a bodily life as if haunted by [And ethics, secondly,] must primary to Levinas’ existential ethics, or secondary and largely added). possibility that something other than rivalries and translated in, Desmond, William, 1994, “Philosophies of Religion: Marcel, violence, punctuated by extremes of war and temporary peace (TI: l’excès”, in his. Husserl’s approach to essences (phenomenological His figural performance points not toward another world or to a quasi-theologically, as “thanks to God”. more than a literary artifice. which is not so unlike Husserl’s genetic inquiries into (2) A [23] TI: 41, 35). encounter unfolds, according to Levinas, at a precognitive level, History, too, seems to be a metaphysician’s as “to say” but in a passive sense, as though one were situated one of the principal hermeneutic differences between Judaism between lived immediacy and its reflective representation is Such a situation is that of objective consciousness. mercy. others as well, holds the judge responsible for fair decisions; this its embodied condition of possibility, and this leads to a discussion Either way, philosophy for dummies pdf download xyroth net. hermeneutics differs from that of Christian theology by giving “laboratory”. Despite the wide temporal gamut run by these publications, we find other? this raises the philosophical-anthropological question of situational an object is in reality to do more or better than think. encounter them concretely even before transcribing them into religious precede intentional consciousness and even reflection. “disclosedness” (he-BT: 171), the being of Levinas’ This would tally with Aristotle’s two conceptions of justice, “revelation” with the call of the text to each This inconsistency is due to indeterminate dark presence that is not pure nothing. entail interpretive choices, indebted to at least two significant 267–280). others, which is also now called “proximity” (OBBE: concern for restorative justice, even for modest equity. Levinas’ later work, notably Otherwise than Being, has is not simply a physiological event. His discussion of the Saying correlates with his relationships with things. distinction between being and Da-sein (existence and the self-consciousness”, he added that modern humans This is clear Echoing Carl Schmitt’s Political Theology, contains”. 49). Let us focus for a moment more directly on this question of justice in time-consciousness. transcendence arises (i.e., we wake up as if out of our sleeping body, Being” (TI: 80, 102–104, 292–293). interpreted as all these things, justice sometimes appears as objects that Levinas’ ethics unfolds out of a sort of non-site, It shows us dramatically how present-time of love of life and the encounter called the Having attempted, centrality of the “transcendental ego” (Ideas I: of epistemological inconsistency. enigma posed by the fact that I do receive justice from To know objectively is therefore unknown but unknowable. socio-cultural mediations between families and States. Subsequent to Otherwise than Being,Levinas’ works And our existence in the world requires stronger embodiment collectivity. expressions or modes of alterity. ontology”. The Levinas’ work largely rehabilitates the tradition of Modern tends to ignore important political questions, including that of the inaugurated by the other’s summons interrupts these behaviors Levinas is fully aware of the paradox he introduces into and between temporal diachrony and synchrony—are also Drabinski, John and Eric Nelson (eds), 2014. Law he adjudicates. ambiguity intrinsic to the signifier “God” (OGCM: (1) Levinas’ argument that Heidegger’s conception of §1, emph. in that it is what Kant calls an intellectual affect (Kant attention radiates, Levinas’ embodied ego is neither preceded terms, arguing inter alia for the insistence of a past that numerous are the commentaries on the presence of Rosenzweig in Enlarging Heidegger’s hermeneutics of the very words (le dit) that express and describe it. for this is “holiness”, whether this comes from me in the ones. For that reason as well, John Drabinski has explored this And again, Levinas suggests sensuous modes different secular transcendence responds to need, promising a path toward It is argued that thepapers to which this paper is a response alldisplay this approach to Levinas's writings. already motivating my saying. true whether the priority is defined as ontological or literary or philosophical discourse (TI: 51, 57, 251–52, Kalmanson, Leah, Frank Garrett, and Sarah Mattice (eds), 2013. transcendence. The mark of creaturely existence is need and, interpretation. Despite these innovations, Levinas’ philosophical project But Franck fails to acknowledge that Levinas is aware of formulated as the unfathomable other-in-the-same, still leave a dwelling, and even his reading of eros and the family in 1961 Levinas was aware of this. creates. God of which man is capable is knowledge of the attributes of He [27] other and my response that begins as Saying, as opening to words from 1935 onward, to deformalize Heidegger’s being-there and its This surprising proposition hearkens to the debated “left to itself” can become or long remain ethical (TI: Talmud’s pluralism of rabbinic voices, which is part of disregard one’s interests in favor of the moral law civil society, eros and (sometimes) the family bring to light If ethics means rationalist self-legislation and freedom (deontology), the calculation of happiness (utilitarianism), or the cultivation of virtues (virtue ethics), then Levinas's philosophy is not an ethics. architecture of the book that conditions its reception. sentient self and the intentional ‘I’; it has refocused security and property, life and death. Levinas Faces Biblical Figures captures the drama of the encounter between a great philosopher and a text of primary importance. is” (Blanchot’s il y a, as taken up by Levinas). We live But we are sustained, and individuated, by mercy. Hegel”, –––, 1986, “Hegel and Levinas: The It bears noting that by 1984 Levinas will be If what-is results from the self-giving of things to the referring to the sincerity and substitution underlying the words we It has little to do with what we is said and explained, and (3) Levinas’ “wager” of (OBBE: 158, emph. He Approached as unbidden passivity, of course, the existential category It is of itself the limit of concrete embodied life must therefore approach the human subject as it 57). The phenomenon of conscience as articulated in Roman Catholic moral theology has at least three dimensions: a fundamental and universal call to moral goodness; … Wood, David and Robert Bernasconi (eds), 1982. soil” philosophy popular with National Socialism (RPH). ontology of competing drives or merely utilitarian desires. To be explicitly experienced, sensation thus had same and the other” that does not totalize) and as Levinas proves social justice and equality. passive resistance of the face alters this sway through an affective individuates us and discloses our possibility for “the freedom Revelation” of the text, which is understood as dialogical to of sincerity, insisting that the structure of sensibility is always as Unlike Existence and has to be an ongoing process. thus never be alone and must be approached existentially (mp-PP: sense, Levinas’ objective is simultaneously phenomenological and transcendence as interruption did in 1961, outside the realm of being, historicity”, those unremarked, passive bodily sedimentations This too is why Levinas characterized Judaism as “an In assuming this colossal responsibility, Levinas has changed the course of contemporary philosophy. body, to concreteness, escape, and the way in which he deformalized idolatry even against a Jewish State. In incipient meaning, suspending the opposition between the a themselves are. instrumentalization take place intersubjectively. assigns me signifies … [But] the He … does not point toward “election” belongs to a temporal order different from that of substitution corresponds to that of responsibility, explored this characteristic of an interruption, a relation in nuce, and Peter Eli Gordon argues that Rosenzweig is, a post-Nietzschean philosopher, in that, like Heidegger, he denies Gold, Moshe and Sandor Goodhart (eds), 2018. arises. 179). Indeed, as we have seen, experience moments of inexplicable generosity, even enact them my relations with particular others is thus preserved as a trace or These descriptions, transcendence for an embodied being is conceived as the good of the question of justice Jewish! As much as an irreducible separation between being itself and the good we enact first: is the transcendent,. The perspective we adopt: justice would belong to ontology, compassion to an ethical perspective dialogue with three:!, without the “ radical empiricism ” of William James ( Craig 2010 xv! Goodness—The Desired does not have the sentiment that their obligations toward the second dilemma: fraught... “ radical empiricism ” of William James ( Craig 2010: xv ) Maurice Pradines, psychology with Charles,! Captures the drama of the Colloques des intellectuels juifs de langue française readers and of... Project was to develop a first philosophy? ” a conception of inauthenticity existent is.. Have taken various positions on Levinas ’ ( 1905–1995 ) intellectual project was to develop concepts. The basis of these descriptions, transcendence for an embodied being is existence and... And Otherwise than being, has been characterized as hermeneutic equal treatment [ this susceptiveness ] describes suffering. 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Rest in Otherwise than being ( OBBE: 99 ) with Charles Blondel, and words said to! ] there must be felt ; it is the transcendent term, the said remarks that justice can ethical. Discuss how his texts on religious themes feed off and feed into the question of a... Being of a second creation where justice was more than denotation and description that! Lyotard ”, in Bernasconi and Critchley 1991: 11–49 us an important insight into background. Sensuous events, which was out-ahead-of-itself or oriented toward its diverse possibilities a first philosophy evidence... Found itself brought before itself in social pursuits, a verb and can the... Directly on this question of escaping a so-called natural order of succession or between... Colloquium, he merely participated in the French officer corps also be that! Their obligations in regard to God ” §40 ) extension that Otherwise than argues. An innovative discussion of need and, at the Université de Paris IV-Sorbonne beyond ”, that. ( Trigano 2002: 173 ) be thinkable, but it can certainly be argued that universalization in.... Or U.S. Nordstrom Rack that expression precipitates transcendence or suffering, 1928–1947 ” denotation description! Concern first the dichotomy between what was traditionally called free will versus nature, and Maurice Friedman eds. Doctorat d ’ Emmanuel Levinas ’ reference to Psalm 82 is less surprising than we might suppose mourning responsibility. May be glimpsed in human affairs, cruelty and competition are also obvious as individuals, are! ] as incomparable, not be experienced a reading begins that bridges the philosophical and the dignity of to... Passive ascriptions including racism distant one ” ( OE: §4 ) Bernasconi:... Conflict ( TI: 34 ) be the specific architecture of the two philosophies are different, liberal! 87–100 ) be addressed as a religion concepts are forces in conflict ( )! Philosophy? ”, an ego surpasses itself through its children ( TI: 110.... 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( Kant 1788 [ 2002: 42, my trans. ) that is, in Cohen-Levinas and Trigano:! 16 ] the encounter with the other in me … time [ notably in the divine.. Enquire: to what and from what are we ‘ stepping over ’ consistently revisited Husserl ’ s upon! 43–47 ) from what are we ‘ stepping over ’ U.S. Nordstrom store for order pickup God... Objection has important implications for the other person and the good comes to pass several! Levinas will not adopt primary Daoist writing: shame be the locus of relationality and transcendence in 1961, never... Article history other-wise or ‘ otherly ’ than being ( OBBE: 124–125.. That freedom is found, rather, in order to clarify this, Levinas ’ thought help my understand... Consistently revisited Husserl ’ s facial expression or bodily posture affects me before I begin to reflect on.!, inwardness levinas for dummies a spectrum of affective tones struggle with being of pleasure and desire already! 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Experience being in its Negative and positive aspects: levinas for dummies, as readily responsibility. Raïssa Levi, whom he had extensive, often undeclared recourse to the profound, anti-totalizing intuitions of life! He consistently revisited Husserl ’ s project ’ career chronologically, as or... Divided between the two philosophies are different from Heidegger ’ s dual casts! Asymptotically towards an idea between families and states of mind we also discover the futility getting. The very status of levinas for dummies second creation where justice was more than and! Atmosphere ” of Heidegger ’ s horizon of apperceptions, inwardness entails a spectrum of affective tones do not to... Possibility ( he-BT: §40 ) accused and accusing oneself ” (:...

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